African-Americans and Hispanics currently make up about 12 percent of the population; i.e., taken together, they account for over 68 million people. There are currently about 14 million Asians in the United States, making this group the fastest growing segment of the population (Hughey).
The average African-American family has about 60 percent of the income as the average white family. But the disparity of wealth is a lot greater. The average African-American family has only 18 percent of the wealth of the average white family(Wolff).
Unemployment is high. Since January of 2001, 2.9 million private sector jobs have disappeared. Unemployment for African-Americans has risen to 10.5 percent, for women to five percent, for Latinos to 7.3 percent, and for people ages 20-24, 9.8 percent. All of these statistics are one or two percent higher than they were in January 2001 (Jobs 5).
Forty yeas after the Watts uprising in South LA, the city's African-Americans still lag behind whites in education, housing, health care, and income. African-Americans in LA are ten times more likely to be murdered than whites, and 35 percent less likely to graduate from high school in four years. Household income trails by forty percent. African-Americans and Latinos are also four times more likely to be searched by LAPD officers (Little).
Black Americans still get far fewer operations, tests, medicines and other lifesaving treatments than whites despite year of efforts to erase racial disparities, according to three major new studies. They are much less likely to undergo heart bypasses, appendectomies, mammograms, tests and drugs for heart disease and diabetes. The research paints a discouraging picture of African-Americans receiving unequal care (Stein).
Jobs held by Mexican immigrants are killing workers at a fast rate. Mexicans represent 1 in 24 workers in the US, but 1 in 14 die in work related accidents. Though Mexicans often take the most dangerous jobs, they are more likely than others to be killed even when doing similarly risky work (Pritchard 10A).
In the mid-1990s, Mexicans working in the US were about 30 percent more likely to die on the job than native-born workers; now they are about 80 percent more likely. Mexicans are nearly twice as likely to die at work than other immigrants (Pritchard 10A).
- From 1998 to 2001 families of color gained only $100 of median financial assets in those three years, compared with $5,800 gain for white families (Leondar-Wright).
- From 1995 to 2001, the net worth of typical families of color fell 7% to $17,100, while white families' net worth rose 37% to $120,900 (Leondar-Wright).
Overall the gap between the net worth of typical white families and families of color grew by 21% over those 3 years(Leondar-Wright).
European-American home ownership has jumped from 65 percent in 1970 to 75 percent today. African American home ownership has risen from 42 percent in 1968 to 48 percent today (UFE.)
Home ownership by ethnicity is as follows: European-American 73 percent, Asian American 54 percent, African-American and Hispanic 48 percent. Average US rate is 68 percent (Vasquez Latinos F1).
Denial rates for mortgage application are strongly indicative of practices that leave out people of color. In 2002, the denial rates were as follows: European-American 9.2 percent, Asian-Americans 12.1 percent, Hispanic 20.1 percent, and African-American 22.1 percent (Vasquez Loan C1)
In 2002, families of color added $3,100 of debt (an 18% increase) while white families added only $1,300 (a 3% increase)(Leondar-Wright).
Stock ownership reached a few more people of color. But the typical shareholder of color owned $1,800 less stock at the end of the 3 years than the beginning; the typical white shareholder owned $200 more(Leondar-Wright).
The same pattern held for retirement accounts such as 401(k) plans and IRAs. Among people of color, the typical retirement account fell 30% from $14,200 to $10,000. Meanwhile, the typical retirement account for whites rose 24% from $28,300 to $35,000 (Leondar-Wright).
The U.S. poverty rate was 11.7 percent in 2001, up from 11.3 percent in the year before, with rates nearly double that among Latinos (37 million total) and blacks (36 million total), the two ethnic minorities suffering most from hunger and poverty, given their share in the US population (Rizvi).
The poverty rate of non-Hispanic white households in the United States in 2003: 6.1% · The poverty rate of African-American households in the United States in 2003: 23.1% (U.S. Bureau of the Census)(Vital Autumn 2004)
Percentage of African-American children under the age of 18 in 2003 who lived in poverty: 33.1%. Percentage of African-American children under the age of 18 in 2003 who lived in households that received public assistance: 10.6% (U.S. Bureau of the Census)(Vital Autumn 2004)
Problems black men face begin early; black children are twice as likely to be expelled from preschool than other children (Fulbright).
Percentage of all white fourth-grade public school students in the United States who are eligible for the federal government's free or reduced-price lunch program: 22.7% ·Percentage of all black fourth-grade public school students in the United States who are eligible for the federal government's free or reduced-price lunch program: 69.8% (U.S. Department of Education)(Vital Summer 2004)
According to the Census Bureau, 37 percent of households led by Latino women - mostly Mexican - remain below the poverty line(Rizvi).
According to Census Bureau, median household income for American Indians and Alaska Natives, based on a 1998/2000 average: $31,799. This is higher than for African -Americans ($28,679), not statistically different from Hispanics ($31,703) and lower than for non-Hispanic Whites ($45,514), and Asians and Pacific Islanders ($52,553) (Glaczko).
Poverty rate for American Indians and Alaska Natives, based on a 1998/2000 average, 25.9%. This means there are 701,000 American Indians and Alaska Natives below the poverty line (Glaczko).
African-Americans suffer twice the unemployment rate of other groups. One in nine African-Americans cannot find a job (UFE).
Black infants are nearly two and a half times more likely to die as European-American infants before age one, a gap greater than in 1970 (UFE).
US has highest population behind bars in the world: One in eight black men in their 20s and 30s are incarcerated, compared to 1 in 63 white men. (based on Justice Dept. figures) (Shane 7A). Prison rolls are at an all-time high as of 2004, with 2.267 million people in prisons. In 2004 law officers made more arrests for drug ciolations than for any other offense (Carroll.) And one in 37 adults in the US have been in jail or prison or are in now--the highest incarceration rate in the world (5.6 million).
Though African-Americans are roughly 12 percent of the US population, they comprise about half of those who are behind bars (Street 39). About 8.4 percent of the country's black men between 25 and 29 were in state or federal prison in 2004. Black men made up an estaimted 41 percent of inmates iwth a sentence of more than one year (Carroll.)
A study of 328 criminal cases in which the imprisoned party was exonerated, or shown to be innocent, over the last 15 years suggests that thousands of innocent people are in prison today. Most of the exonerations were in rape and murder cases. and most cases involved mis-identification by witnesses. The problem was especially pronounced in rape cases involving African-American men: while 29 percent of those in prison for rape are African-American, 65 percent of those who were exonerated of the crime in this study were African-American, suggesting mis-identification of witnesses across races (Thousands).
The US Senate apologized Monday for never having outlawed lynching, which took the lives of at least 4,700 people between 1880 and 1960. Eight percent occurred in Southern states. Fewer than one percent of the lylnchings were followed by serious attempts to bring those responsible to justice. More than 200 anti-lynching bills were introduced in the first half of the 20th century, and seven presidents unsuccessfully urged their passage. (Markoe.)
More people died trying to enter the US illegally in 2005 than any time since the Border Patrol began counting in 1998: 460, almost forty percent more than last year. (Hendricks.)
More than 30 million US citizens--one in four workers--are doing low paying jobs (below $8.70 an hour)that do not provide the basics for a decent life. They are security guards, child care givers, fast food and retail clerks, nursing home aides, hotel workers, chicken processors, custodians, call center employees (Shulman 20-21).
In the United States, in the last survey year, 1998, the richest 1 percent of households owned 38 percent of all wealth (Wolff).
The average top executive in the US gets 400 times more in pay than the typical hourly employee at the same company. Comparisons: Brazil 57 to 1, Mexico 45 to 1, Australia 22 to 1, Italy 19 to 1, Japan 10 to 1 (Hightower 1-3).
- Median pay for CEOs at 100 top corporations rose 14 percent last year, while their stocks fell 23 percent (Hightower 1-3).
- Median family income in the United States fell 1.7 percent between 2002 and 2003 (Jobs 5).
Adjusted for inflation, the average income in the US fell by 9.2 percent from 2000 to 2003, according to new IRS data. This was caused by the stock market fall, erosion of jobs and wages, and the fact that many more ordinary employees are having their pay tied to stock options and bonus plans, which are volatile. Such drops have not been seen since WWII (Johnston).
The top 5 percent own more than half of all wealth. In 1998, they owned 59 percent of all wealth. Or to put it another way, the top 5 percent had more wealth than the remaining 95 percent of the population, collectively(Wolff).
The top 20 percent owns over 80 percent of all wealth. In 1998, it owned 83 percent of all wealth(Wolff).
It is more difficult than at any point since WWII for people to climb socially. In 1978, 23 percent of the men whose fathers were in the bottom 25 percent of the population according to social and economic status were able to make it to the top 25 percent. Now only 10 percent of the men with poor fathers have been able to rise that far (Krugman 16).
The bottom 20 percent basically have zero wealth. They either have no assets, or their debt equals or exceeds their assets. The bottom 20 percent has typically accumulated no savings(Wolff).
A household in the middle-the median household - has wealth of about $62,000. $62,000 is not insignificant, but if you consider that the top 1 percent of households' average wealth is $12.5 million, you can see what a difference there is in the distribution(Wolff).
The richest 10 percent of families own about 85 percent of all outstanding stocks. They own about 85 percent of all financial securities, 90 percent of all business assets(Wolff).
There are now 13 million single-parent households in the United States and about 25 percent of all children live with only one parent. Women head 79 percent of white single-parent households, 83 percent of Hispanic single-parent households, and 90 percent of African American single-parent households(Hughey).
Approximately 45 percent of children in the United States who are raised by divorced mothers and 69 percent of those raised by never-married mothers live at or below the poverty line (Hughey).
- Percentage, respectively, of the U.S. fathers and mothers responsible for child support who do not pay it : 26, 36 (Harpers May).
- Percentage of employed U.S. mothers who think full-time mothers look down on them : 66. Percentage of full-time mothers who think employed mothers look down on them : 73 (Harpers May.)
If a woman wants to increase her income by taking non-traditional work, she is unlikely to succeed. The Census Bureau compiled statistics on hundreds of job categories in its 2000 count, and found just five where women typically earn as much as men. These are: hazardous-material removal, telecommunications line installers, meeting and convention planners, dining or cafeteria workers, and construction trade helpers. Except for meeting planners, these fields are dominated by men (Armas 5A).
In female-dominated fields, such as kindergarten and preschool teaching, which is 98 percent female, men out drew women by $5000 a year. In nursing, which is 91 percent female, men earned an average of $3,000 more than women (Armas 5A.)
While 98 percent of kindergarten teachers are women, only 37 percent of college professors are. While 98 percent of dental hygienists are women, only four percent of dentists are. Ten percent of management positions are held by women. Of the Fortune 500 companies, two are headed by women (Mantilla 13).
Nationally, the median income for women working full time and year round was $28,000, compared to $38,000 for a man. A woman in 2003 earned 74 cents for every dollar earned by a man. In 1963, women earned about 59 cents for every man's dollar (Armas 5A).
For the second year in a row, poverty increased in 2002, from 11.7 percent in 2001 to 12.1 percent, or 34.7 million people, in 2002. Of those, 12.1 million are children (Weisman 3A). In 2005 the Census Bureau estimated that 37 million were living in poverty, about 12.6 percent of Americans. Among the poor in 2005, 43.9 pecent were non-Hispanic white, 24.9 percent black, 11.1 percent Asian, 21.8 percent Hispanic of any origin (Lelchuk).
- 30 million people in the United States go hungry at night (Rizvi).
- Census Bureau figures identify children, single mothers, and the elderly as most likely to face hunger (Rizvi).
One in six children in the United States continues to live in poverty. Three out of four poor children live in families where someone worked and one in three poor children lives with a full-time year-round workers. More than 5.1 million children live in extremely low-income households spending at least half of their income on housing. Twenty-two million adults and 13 million children live in households suffering from hunger or "food insecurity without hunger"(State of America's).
Requests for emergency food assistance rose 17 percent overall in 2003 from 2002 in the survey of 25 large cities. Requests for emergency shelter assistance increased by 13 percent. Fifty-nine percent of the people requesting emergency food assistance were members of families. Thirty-nine percent of the adults requesting emergency food assistance were employed. People remain homeless an average of five months -- longer than before, in most cities. Single men comprise 41 percent of the homeless population, families with children 40 percent, single women 14 percent and unaccompanied youth 5 percent (Hunger).
State budgets are running in the red, and that means that their services to the people are diminishing. In 2002, states cut $49 billion in health care, welfare benefits, education and other public services. They plan to cut another $25.7 billion in 2003. State budget cuts this year and last year will be nearly equivalent to the initial amounts requested by Mr. Bush and allocated by Congress for the invasion and occupation of Iraq (Krieger).
The war against Iraq is likely to cost the American taxpayer at least $100 billion and possibly much more (Krieger).
We are now spending some $400 billion a year on our military forces, not including the special expenditures for the war in Iraq. This is approximately one-half of the money that Congress has discretion to allocate each year. The money that goes to the military cannot go to social programs that would lead to economic justice in our country.. Four hundred billion dollars a year on the military is over $1.1 billion dollars a day. It works out to $45.5 million per hour,$761,000 per minute (Krieger).
The US will wrack up a $400 billion deficit this year (Lazurus 11).
Since March 2001, the US private sector has lost 3.1 million jobs, or 2.8 percent of US total jobs, the largest decline since the Great Depression; six of the Federal Reserve's 12 regional districts are experiencing subpart or sluggish economic growth (Lazarus 11).
According to the New York Times, the largest corporations in the U.S. have been paying fewer taxes than ever before, since new Bush Administration tax policies were enacted. The 275 wealthiest U.S. companies generated $1.1 trillion in revenue from 2001 to 2003, but only paid taxes on half of that. (Organic Consumers Corporations) http://www.organicconsumers.org/corp/taxes092304.cfm>More...Organic Bytes #40Food and Consumer News Tidbits with an Edge!9/29/2004
Number of states in which Wal-Mart is the largest employer : 21 (Harpers June).
Luntz has identified an issue that could be dynamite. Most Americans, not only mothers, feel increasingly time crunched. The Wall Street Journal confirmed that Americans are working 20% longer today than in 1970, while work-time has declined in other industrial countries. A recent poll released by the Center for a New American Dream found 88% of Americans agreeing that "working too many hours results in not having enough time to spend with families." Half say they're willing to sacrifice some pay for more time (de Graaf)
A poll commissioned by Hilton Hotels found that only 23 percent of Americans come to work refreshed on Mondays. Our vacations are disappearing a recent Harris survey found that 37% of women earning less than $40,000 a year (and 28% of all working women) receive no paid vacation at all. On average, Americans work nearly nine weeks (350 hours) more each year than western Europeans (deGraaf).
American public policies protecting our family and personal time fall far short of those in other countries. A study released last June by the Harvard School of Public Health, covering 168 of the world's nations concluded that "the United States lags dramatically behind all high-income countries, as well as many middle- and low-income countries when it comes to public policies designed to guarantee adequate working conditions for families." The study found that:
- 163 of 168 countries guarantee paid leave for mothers in connection with childbirth. 45 countries offer such leave to fathers. The U.S. does neither.
- 139 countries guarantee paid sick leave. The U.S. does not.
- 96 countries guarantee paid annual (vacation) leave. The U.S. does not.
- 84 countries have laws that fix a maximum limit on the workweek. The U.S. does not.
- 37 countries guarantee parents paid time off when children are sick. The U.S. does not (deGraaf).
Fulltiime American workers work on average about 46 weeks per year; fulltime British, French and German workers work only 41 weeks per year (Krugman).
In the United States today, there are more private vehicles on the road than people licensed to drive them, the Worldwatch report points out. The average size of refrigerators in U.S. households increased by 10 percent between 1972 and 2001, and the number per home rose as well. New houses in the U.S. were 38 percent bigger in 2000 than in 1975, despite having fewer people in each household on average. As a result of these consumption patterns, the United States, with just 4.5 percent of the world's population, releases 25 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions (Richer).
Yet increased consumption has not brought Americans happiness. About a third of Americans report being "very happy," the same share as in 1957, when Americans were only half as wealthy. Americans are also some of the most overworked people in the industrial world, putting in the equivalent of nine more weeks on the job each year than the average European (Richer)
A new chemical study of umbilical chord samples from the American Red Cross has found that babies have an average of 200 known toxic chemicals in their blood, including mercury, fire retardants, pesticides and a chemical used in the production of Teflon, even before being born. The tests found that hundreds of chemicals, pollutants and pesticides are stored in body fat over a lifetime and then pumped from mother to fetus through umbilical cord blood. Overall, chemical absorption can be reduced by eating organic foods, and by reducing exposure to toxins at home and at work (Organic Consumers Newborns).
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control reports that one of the main sources of pesticide exposure for U.S. children comes from the food they eat. According to the Food and Drug Administration, half of produce currently tested in grocery stores contains measurable residues of pesticides. Laboratory tests of eight industry-leader baby foods reveal the presence of 16 pesticides, including three carcinogens. According to EPA's "Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment," children receive 50% of their lifetime cancer risks in the first two years of life. In blood samples of children aged 2 to 4, concentrations of pesticide residues are six times higher in children eating conventionally farmed fruits and vegetables compared with those eating organic food(Organic Consumers).
Sixty two percent of US workers ay their workload has increased in the past six months, and 53 percent say work leaves them "overtired and overwhelmed. Decades of research link stress to everything from heart attacks to stroke, diabetes, weakened immune systems--and now researchers are connecting the dots back to the workplace. Workplace stress costs the nation more than $300 billion yearly in health care, missed work, and stress reduction industry costs (Schwartz).
- Percentage of US adults who are overweight: 66. Obese: 33 Percentage of inactive or under-active adults: 60 (Harpers June).
- In 2001, 4.8 percent of the population--up slightly over the past four years-- was unable to obtain needed medical care in the past year due to financial barriers (Early).
- 14.1 percent of the population -- some 38.9 million Americans of all ages -- was without health insurance coverage in the first half of 2001. Working-age adults were more likely than seniors or children to lack health insurance coverage(Early).
- Eight out of every 10 people without health coverage either work or are children of working parents. And only 64 percent of workers at larger businesses employing 200 or more receive coverage through their employers (Greenhouse).
- Costly illnesses lead to about half of all personal bankruptcies, and health insurance offers no protectiion against ending up penniless, according to a new Harvard University study. Medical-caused bankrupcty affects about two million Americans annually, counting debtors and their dependents, who include 700,000 children. More than three-fourths had coverage at the start of the illness that caused bankruptcy; 38 percent had lost coverage at least temporarily because of job and/or insurance loss.(Jewell.)
Percentage of non-Hispanic white Americans who did not have health insurance coverage in 2003: 11.1% · Percentage of African Americans who did not have health insurance coverage in 2003: 19.6% (U.S. Bureau of the Census)(Vital Autumn 2004)
Costly illnesses lead to about half of all personal bankruptcies, and health insurance offers no protection against ending up penniless, according to a new Harvard University study. Medical-caused bankruptcies afflict about 2 million US citizens each year, counting debtors and their approximately 700,000 children . More than three fourths with medical related bankruptcies had coverage when the illness began; many lost coverage when illness affected their ability to work (Jewell).
Percentage of white American adult women with high blood pressure: 26.6% · Percentage of African-American adult women with high blood pressure: 39.5% (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)(Vital Autumn 2004)
Number of tuberculosis cases among every 100,000 white Americans in 2003: 1.2 · Number of tuberculosis cases among every 100,000 African Americans in 2003: 9.1 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)(Vital Summer 2004)
Number of Americans lynched in the United States from 1880 to 1960: 4,749 (Tuskegee University)(Vital Autumn 2004)
One in eight--9.3 million--children have no health insurance, though some are covered by state or federal aid (State of America's).
Proportion of people in US with jobs who had full employer-provided health insurance in 1988: 21 percent. Proportion of people in US with jobs who have full employer-provided health insurance today: 4 percent (McIntyre 3F).
Increase in average worker's cost for family health insurance: 50 percent since 2000. Costs have risen from $1,619 to $2,412 per year (Jobs, quoting Kaiser Family Foundation).
A record 46.6 million Americans had no health insurance in 2005 and fewer people received coverage through their employment. Just four yars earlier, in 2001, the census estimated that 62.6 percetn of peoploe were covered and 14.6 uninsured. In 2005 the uninsured rose to 15.9 percent. With medical costs rising about three times faster than wages, employers have reduced coverage and shifted more costs onto employees. (Colliver.)
26.8% is the proportion of American Indians and Alaska Natives lacking health insurance coverage, based on a 1998-2000 average. This rate is significantly higher than the rates of African Americans (19.5 percent), Asians and Pacific Islanders (18.8 percent) and non Hispanic Whites (10.1 percent), but lower than that of Hispanics (32.8 percent) (More).
Percentage of US children and adolescents who are overweight: 20. Percentage of children who get recommended daily servings of fruit, veggies, grains: 2 Percentage of children whose cholesterol levels are too high: 33 Percentage of fifth, seventh, ninth graders in CA who did not meet fitness goals in 2001: 75 (Collier E1).
- Percentage of inactive or under-active kids ages 12-21: 50 (Harpers June).
- Varieties of snack foods for sale in 1960s: 250. Varieties for sale 1999: 2,000 (Harpers June).
- US citizens consume 34 percent of their calories outside the home (May E1).
- 22.3 percent of adults are current smokers, indicating a continued decline in smoking (Early).
About one in 10 American adults (ages 18-64) consumed alcohol excessively. For both men and women, younger adults were more likely to drink excessively than older adults (Early).
For the first time in a decade, the number of new AIDS cases in the US is on the increase. New infections increased 2.2 percent last year, a sign of dangerous complacency about the disease (Heinrichs 7A).
Over 80 percent of the population currently resides in urban areas, with about a third of the population living in the 10 largest metropolitan areas of the United States. Another 11 percent live in the second tier of metropolitan areas. Note that between 1982 and 1997, the total amount of "urbanized" land in the United States increased from around 51 million acres to about 76 million acres, an increase of some 47 percent(Hughey).
More than half of US citizens will develop a mental illness at some point in life, often beginning in childhood or adolescence, says a comprehensive new survey (Carey).
In 1980, about 64 percent of the population was under age 40, while only 16 percent were age 60 and over. By 2030, this number is expected to increase from 16 percent to 26 percent of the total population (Hughey).
- Chance that a U.S. senior citizen reports having skipped medications or not filled prescriptions because of cost : 1 in 5 (Harpers June).
- Number of Medicare patients dropped since 1998 by U.S. HMOs claiming inadequate reimbursement rates : 2,400,000 (Harpers June).
he amount of toxic pollution in the air, water, and land in the US increased five percent in 2002, the biggest increase since the government began tracking pollutant levels in 1988. Industries poured 4.79 billion pounds of 650 different poisons into the environment in this year. Mercury and lead, which harm the nervous systems and development of children, increased by ten percent and three percent. Dioxin, another highly toxic chemical, dropped by five percent (Borenstein 10A).
- Minimum number of chronic medical disorders linked to exposure to industrial chemicals : 110 (Harpers June)
- Average number of industrial compounds and pollutants that can be found in an American's blood and urine : 91 (Harpers May).
Pollution from electric power plants in the United States shortens the lives of more than 30,00 0 people every year, according to a new report released here by environmental and health researchers. The study concludes that soot, or fine particle air pollution, from the nation's aging coal-fired power plants is also causing tens of thousands of asthma attacks, cardiac problems and upper and lower respiratory problems each year (Knight).
Percentage change since 1973 in overall U.S. energy consumption : +27 Percentage change since then in U.S. oil imports : +86 (Harpers June)
The US has two percent of world's oil reserves. (The US has about 4.6 percent of the world's population, based on the US Census Bureau's current estimate of the world population at 6.377 billion and on the factmonstor.com's estimate that the US has 293 million people.) The US uses a quarter of the world's oil and 43 percent of the world's gasoline. The US imports 56 percent of its gas and oil. Gas use, and the number of cars on the road, are steadily increasing in California despite higher gas prices (Shore 7B).
For the first time, in 2003, the typical American family has more vehicles in the garage than licensed drivers in the house, according to the US Transportation Department's latest national survey. There are 107 million US households, each with an average of 1.9 cars, trucks or sport utility vehicles and an average of 1.8 drivers, the Bureau of Transportation Statistics reported. That equals 204 million vehicles and 191 million drivers (Cars).
Seven out of ten fourth graders cannot read or do math at grade level. (State of America's).
Ninety percent of the nation's children attend public schools. Children in the poorest families are six times as likely as children in more affluent families to drop out of high school. Almost one in ten teens ages 16 to 19 is a school dropout (State of America's).
Three-quarters of the nation's public schools are in need of repairs, renovations, and modernization. The average school building is more than 40 years old. Yet states spend on average almost three times as much per prisoner as per public school pupil(State of America's).
About two-thirds of the nation's 3 million new high school graduates will start college soon, but only half will graduate from college (Matthews 9A) .
The nation's 10.6 million public college students are at higher risk than those 2.7 million who are at more costly private schools. Public colleges have fewer means to intervene by helping students with their various needs (Matthews 9A)
College students in virtually every state will be required to shoulder more of the cost of their education under new federal rules for financial aid. Because of the changes, which take effect in the 2005-06 academic year and are expected to save the government $300 million annually, at least 1.3 million low-income students will receive smaller Pell Grants, the nation's primary scholarship, according to two analyses of the new rules. In addition, 89,000 students or so who would otherwise be getting some Pell Grant money will get none, the analyses found (Winter).
A report released Thursday by the National Endowment for the Arts says the number of non-reading adults increased by more than 17 million between 1992 and 2002. Only 47 percent of American adults read "literature" (poems, plays, narrative fiction) in 2002, a drop of 7 points from a decade earlier. Those reading any book at all in 2002 fell to 57 percent, down from 61 percent (Italie).
Total number of ballots ruled "spoiled" in the 2000 presidential election in the state of Florida: 180,000 · Number of these spoiled ballots that were cast by African Americans: 94,500 · Estimated number of spoiled ballots cast by blacks who voted for Al Gore: 85,000 · Margin of victory by George W. Bush over Al Gore in the presidential race in Florida in 2000: 535 votes (United States Civil Rights Commission)(Vital Autumn 2004)
In 1960, 60 percent of the nation's television households had their sets on and tuned to the October presidential debates. In 2000, fewer than 30 percent were tuned in (Patterson).
In 1960, 59.4 percent of eligible US citizens were registered to vote; only 63 percent of those registered voted. In 1964 the number registered jumped to 66.24 percent, but only 61.9 percent voted. In 1984, 71.16 percent were registered--an all time high--but only 53.1 percent voted. In 1992 70 percent were registered, but only 55 percent of them voted (National).
More than 60 percent of non-Hispanic European-Americans voted in 200, compared to 56 percent of voting age African-Americans, 45 percent of Hispanics, and 43 percent of Asians and Pacific Islanders. Only 36 percent of the 18-24 year olds voted in that election. The biggest factor in young peoples' voting in education: 41 percent of college students voted in 1998, compared to only 25 percent of those with a high school education or less(Fact).
The number of people in US prisons and jails, or on probation or parole, reached a record high in 2003, totaling 6.9 million, or 3.2 percent of the population (Record 6A).
America's inmate population grew by 2.9 percent in 2003, to almost 2.1 million people, with one of every 75 men living in prison or jail. The inmate population continued its rise despite a fall in the crime rate and many states' efforts to reduce some sentences, especially for low-level drug offenders. A report by the Justice Department attributes much of the increase to get-tough policies enacted during the 1980s and 1990s, such as mandatory drug sentences, "three-strikes" laws for repeat offenders, and laws that restrict early releases (1 of).
Each year during the 1990s, 25 new prisons went up in the United States. This is up from 16 per year in the 1980s and 4 per year in the 1970s. Rural communities in particular want prisons because they provide steady, recession-proof employment (Street 39).
Women made up seven percent of inmates in federal and state prisons in 2004, and accounted for nearly one in four arrests. This is due to increased participation in drug crimes, violent crimes, and fraud. The number of incarcerated women was at an all-time high as a result ( Carroll.)
Three million children in a year are reported abused or neglected and referred for investigation or assessment; close to 900,000 of them are confirmed as victims of child maltreatment. Child abuse and domestic violence co-occur in an estimated 30 to 60 percent of the families where there is some form of family violence. (State of America's).
The national crime rate has dropped nearly 25 percent since 1993, but more than one-quarter of violent crime victims known to police in the U.S. are juveniles(State of America's).
Youths ages 16 to 19 currently experience overall violence, including rape and general assault, at higher rates than people in all other age categories. Eight children and teens die from gunfire in the U.S. each day - one child every three hours (State of America's).
Two-thirds of youths in the juvenile justice system have one or more diagnosable mental health disorders. Girls are the fastest growing segment of the juvenile justice population: The arrest rate for females under age 18 increased more than 14 percent between 1993 and 2002, while the rate for males under age 18 decreased(State of America's).
"1 of Every 75 U.S. Men in Prison." The Associated Press May 27, 2004
"5.6 million Americans have spent time in prison." San Jose Mercury News, 18 August 2003, 4A.
Armas, Genaro C. "Women still lag in job earnings." San Jose Mercury News. June 4, 2004.
Borenstein, Seth. "Industry, EPA debate report of rare increase in pollutants." San Jose Mercury News, 23 June 2004.
Carey, Benedict. "Study: Half US suffers mentally." San Jose Mercury News. June 7, 2005. 9A.
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